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This Day In History – September 11

 

History must be written of, by and for the survivors.
Anonymous

 

  • Ancient Rome – The Ludi Romani – ‘Roman Games’ In Full Swing – 51 A.D.
  • Ancient History – Louis I, the Pious Succeeds His Father French King Charlemagne – 814
  • Independence War – The Battle of Brandywine – Patriots Defeated But Unbroken – 1777
  • Civil War – Battle of Cheat Mountain – “General Lee’s First Test” – 1861
  • Old West – Mountain Meadows Massacre – 1857
  • Science – New Wright Brothers Flight Record – 1908
  • WWI – Zimmerwald Conference Issues a Call For Immediate Peace – 1915
  • WWII – Hitler Focuses East, Sends Troops to Romania – 1940
  • Terrorists – Infamous, Horrific 9/11 Terrorist Attack In New York – 2001
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    Chariot Race

    September 11, A.D. 51 – Ancient Rome

    The Ludi Romani – ‘Roman Games’ are in full swing

    The Ludi Romani or Ludi Magni (September 5-19) were held to honor Jupiter Optimus Maximus whose temple was dedicated on September 13, 509 B.C. (Source: Scullard). The games were organized by the curule aediles and were divided into ludi circenses and luci scaenici. They started with a procession to the Circus Maximus. In the procession were young men, some on horseback, charioteers, the almost naked competing athletes, spear carrying dancers to flute and lyre players, satyr and Silenoi impersonators, musicians and incense burners, followed by images of the gods and once mortal divine heroes, and sacrificial animals. The games included horse-drawn chariot races, foot races, boxing, wrestling, and more.

    Source – On This Day in Ancient History – Time for the Roman Games – About.com

    Further reading:

  • Ludi Romani – Wikipedia
  • Religion in ancient Rome
  • Chariot Racing – Wikipedia
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    Charlemagne crowns Louis the Pious

    September 11, 814 – Ancient History

    Lous I, the Pious succeeds his father French King Charlemange

    On this day in 814, Louis I, the Pious, succeeded his father, the great French king Charlemagne, as King of the Franks and Emperor of the Romans. Roman Coins.net

    Known as Louis the Pious or Louis the Debonair (in French, Louis le Pieux, or Louis le Débonnaire; in German, Ludwig der Fromme; known to contemporaries by the Latin Hludovicus or Chlodovicus), Louis was the son of Charlemagne, and the only designated heir to survive his father.

    In 781 Louis was appointed king of Aquitaine, one of the “sub-kingdoms” of the Carolingian Empire, and though he was only three years old at the time he would acquire great experience managing the kingdom as he matured. In 813 he became co-emperor with his father, then, when Charlemagne died a year later, he inherited the empire — though not the title Roman Emperor.

    Louis I

    The empire was a conglomerate of several different ethnic groups, including Franks, Saxons, Lombards, Jews, Byzantines and many others across a great span of territory. Charlemagne had handled the many differences and the large size of his realm by dividing it up into “sub-kingdoms,” but Louis represented himself not as a ruler of different ethnic groups, but as a leader of Christians in a unified land.

    As emperor, Louis initiated reforms and redefined the relationship between the Frankish empire and the papacy. He carefully structured a system whereby various territories could be assigned to his three grown sons while the empire remained intact. He took swift action in quashing challenges to his authority and even sent his half-brothers into monasteries to prevent any future dynastic conflicts. Louis also performed voluntary penance for his sins, a display that deeply impressed contemporary chroniclers.

    The birth of a fourth son in 823 to Louis and his second wife, Judith, triggered a dynastic crisis. Louis’s elder sons, Pippin, Lothair and Louis the German, had maintained a delicate if uneasy balance, and when Louis attempted to reorganize the empire to include little Charles, resentment raised its ugly head. There was a palace revolt in 830, and in 833 when Louis agreed to meet Lothair to settle their differences (at what became known as the “Field of Lies,” in Alsace), he was instead confronted by all his sons and a coalition of their supporters, who forced him to abdicate.

    But within a year Louis had been released from confinement and was back in power. He continued to rule energetically and decisively until his death in 840.

    Source – Lous I – About.com

    Further reading:

  • Louis the Pious – Wikipedia
  • Louis the Pious doing penance at Attigny in 822

     
     
     

    Nation Makers depicts a scene from the battle, by Howard Pyle, a summer resident of Chadds Ford. The painting is displayed in the Brandywine River Museum


    September 11, 1777 – American Revolution

    The Battle of Brandywine – Patriots Defeated But Unbroken

    On the afternoon of this day in 1777, General Sir William Howe and General Charles Cornwallis launch a full-scale British attack on General George Washington and the Patriot outpost at Brandywine Creek near Chadds Ford, in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, on the road linking Baltimore and Philadelphia.

    Howe and Cornwallis spilt their 18,000 British troops into two separate divisions, with Howe leading an attack from the front and Cornwallis circling around and attacking from the right flank. The morning had provided the British troops with cover from a dense fog, so Washington was unaware the British had split into two divisions and was caught off guard by the oncoming British attack.

    Although the Americans were able to slow the advancing British, they were soon faced with the possibility of being surrounded. Surprised and outnumbered by the 18,000 British troops to his 11,000 Continentals, Washington ordered his men to abandon their posts and retreat. Defeated, the Continental Army marched north and camped at Germantown, Pennsylvania. The British abandoned their pursuit of the Continentals and instead began the British occupation of Philadelphia. Congress, which had been meeting in Philadelphia, fled first to Lancaster, then to York, Pennsylvania, and the British took control of the city without Patriot opposition.

    The 7th Pennsylvania Regiments Brandywine flag

    The one-day battle at Brandywine cost the Americans more than 1,100 men killed or captured while the British lost approximately 600 men killed or injured. To make matters worse, the Patriots were also forced to abandon most of their cannon to the British victors after their artillery horses fell in battle.

    Source – This Day In History

    Further reading:

  • Brandywine Soldiers
  • History of the Battle of Brandywine – U.S. History.com
  • The Battle of Brandywine – The War Times Journal
  • The Battle of Brandywine Creek 1777
  • – British Battles.com

    Americans holding their ground at Battle of Brandywine

     
     

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    CSA General Robert E. Lee

    September 11, 1861 – American Civil War

    Battle of Cheat Mountain – “General Lee’s First Test”

    After the twin Union victories at Philippi and Rich Mountain, much of the pro-Union western Virginia was securely in federal control. Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan received the credit for the victories and was called to Washington to command the Union armies in the East. The Confederacy called Gen. Robert E. Lee from his job as military advisor to President Jefferson Davis, and sent him to reclaim the territory in the rugged mountains.

    At Cheat Mountain, a key position in western Virginia that controlled the traffic on the major turnpike and several mountain passes, were 2,000 Union troops under Gen. Joseph J. Reynolds. Five of the six regiments held a defensive position on the turnpike, while the remaining regiment was placed on the summit of the mountain, seven miles away. Lee assumed the personal direction of 15,000 Confederate soldiers under the command of Brig. Gen. William W. Loring, and decided to attack the Cheat Mountain position. He devised an intricate plan to take the summit while simultaneously attacking the forces on the turnpike.

    On September 11, in a steady, drenching rain, part of the Confederate force made contact with Reynolds’s outpost. The next morning, as the rain continued to pour down, Lee pressed his attack, but his plan was too complicated for his inexperienced troops. The surprise attack on the summit never came, and Lee’s plan quickly fell apart. Captured Union soldiers convinced Lee that he was outnumbered two to one when he actually commanded six men for every one Union soldier. Meanwhile, Reynolds received reinforcements and skirmishing continued on September 13. Lee, having lost the element of surprise and knowing the federal troops held an impregnable position, withdrew his troops. Casualties in the battle were light-100 Confederate and 21 Union soldiers. Lee’s failure was severely criticized. Dubbed “Granny Lee”, he was shipped off to South Carolina to supervise fortifications.

    Source – Battles and Campaigns – Civil War Bluegrass.net

    Further reading:

  • Cheat Mountain – Heritage Preservation Services
  • Battle of Cheat Mountain – Wikipedia
  • Cheat Mountain – Civil War Journeys
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    Plow & Hearth

     
     

    Mountain Meadow Massacre

    September 11, 1857 – Old West

    Mountain Meadows Massacre

    On this day in 1857, Mormon guerillas, stoked by religious zeal and a deep resentment of decades of public abuse and federal interference, murder 120 emigrants at Mountain Meadows, Utah.

    Although historical accounts differ, the conflict with the wagon train of emigrants from Missouri and Arkansas apparently began when the Mormons refused to sell the train any supplies. Some of the emigrants then began to commit minor depredations against Mormon fields, abuse the local Paiute Indians, and taunt the Mormons with reminders of how the Missourians had attacked and chased them out of that state during the 1830s. Angered by the emigrants’ abuse and fired by a zealous passion against the growing tide of invading gentiles, a group of Mormons guerillas from around Cedar City decided to take revenge. Cooperating with a group of Paiute Indians who had already attacked the train on their own initiative, the Mormon guerillas initially pretended to be protectors.

    Read more at – This Day In History

    Further reading:

  • The Mountain Meadows Massacre In Public Discourse – University of Nebraska
  • Mountain Meadows Massacre – Wikipedia
  • Mountain Meadows, Utah Territory, United States

     
     
     

    Wright Brothers

    September 11, 1908 – Science In America

    New Wright Brothers flight record

    Orville Wright established a new flight record of 70 min. aloft.

    The Wright Brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two Americans credited with inventing and building the world’s first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903. In the two years afterward, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build and fly experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible. –Wikipedia

    Further reading:

  • Wright Brothers – Wikipedia
  • Cut and past aviation
  • Wright Stories.com
  • Today In Science
  • Orville demonstrating the flyer to the U.S. Army, Fort Myer, Virginia September 1908. Photo: by C.H. Claudy.

     
     
     

    Vladimir Lenin

    September 11, 1915 – World War I

    Zimmerwald Conference issues a call for immediate peace

    On September 11, 1915, at Zimmerwald in Switzerland, delegates to the First International Socialist Conference call for an immediate end to the First World War.

    Rosa Luxemburg, prominent Marxist revolutionary, martyr and leader of the German Spartacist uprising, 1919.

    Even as battle dragged on in the trenches of the Western Front and the war in the air intensified with increased German air strikes on London and its environs, a group of dedicated anti-war activists and committed socialists gathered in neutral Switzerland from September 5 to 11, 1915, as the First International Socialist Conference. Formally assembled by the Swiss and Italian Socialist parties, the conference included some 40 delegates from 11 countries, including Russia, Poland, France, Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Italy, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway. Among the more prominent attendees were Vladimir Lenin, exiled leader of the radical socialist Bolshevik Party; Leon Trotsky, Lenin’s former political rival and future second-in-command; and Karl Liebknecht, an elected representative to the German Reichstag government who would later break from the Social Democratic party to found the Bolshevik-inspired Spartacist movement with Rosa Luxemburg.

    Read further at – This Day In History

    Further reading:

  • Zimmerwald Conference – Wikipedia
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    Adolf Hitler

    September 11, 1915 – World War II

    Hitler focuses East, sends troops to Romania

    On this day in 1940, Adolf Hitler sends German army and air force reinforcements to Romania to protect precious oil reserves and to prepare an Eastern European base of operations for further assaults against the Soviet Union.

    British poster, welcoming Romania's decision to join the Entente

    As early as 1937, Romania had come under control of a fascist government that bore great resemblance to that of Germany’s, including similar anti-Jewish laws. Romania’s king, Carol II, dissolved the government a year later because of a failing economy and installed Romania’s Orthodox Patriarch as prime minister. But the Patriarch’s death and peasant uprising provoked renewed agitation by the fascist Iron Guard paramilitary organization, which sought to impose order. In June 1940, the Soviet Union co-opted two Romanian provinces, and the king searched for an ally to help protect it and appease the far right within its own borders. So on July 5, 1940, Romania allied itself with Nazi Germany—only to be invaded by its “ally” as part of Hitler’s strategy to create one huge eastern front against the Soviet Union.

    King Carol abdicated on September 6, 1940, leaving the country in the control of the fascist Prime Minister Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard. While Romania would recapture the territory lost to the Soviet Union when the Germans invaded Russia, it would also have to endure the Germans’ raping its resources as part of the Nazi war effort. Besides taking control of Romania’s oil wells and oil installations, Hitler would help himself to Romania’s food crops—causing a food shortage for native Romanians.

    Source – This Day In History

    Further reading:

  • Romania during WWI – Wikipedia
  • Note by video author: This video is in memory of all the romanian soldiers who have fought and died for our freedom in ww1 and 2!!

     
     
     

    September 11, 2001 – Enemy Attack on America

    Infamous, Horrific 9/11 Terrorist Attack In New York

    At 8:45 a.m. on a clear Tuesday morning, an American Airlines Boeing 767 loaded with 20,000 gallons of jet fuel crashes into the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The impact left a gaping, burning hole near the 80th floor of the 110-story skyscraper, instantly killing hundreds of people and trapping hundreds more in higher floors. As the evacuation of the tower and its twin got underway, television cameras broadcasted live images of what initially appeared to be a freak accident. Then, 18 minutes after the first plane hit, a second Boeing 767–United Airlines Flight 175–appeared out of the sky, turned sharply toward the World Trade Center, and sliced into the south tower at about the 60th floor. The collision caused a massive explosion that showered burning debris over surrounding buildings and the streets below. America was under attack.

    The attackers were Islamic terrorists from Saudi Arabia and several other Arab nations. Reportedly financed by Saudi fugitive Osama bin Laden’s al Qaeda terrorist organization, they were allegedly acting in retaliation for America’s support of Israel, its involvement in the Persian Gulf War, and its continued military presence in the Middle East. Some of the terrorists had lived in the United States for more than a year and had taken flying lessons at American commercial flight schools. Others had slipped into the U.S. in the months before September 11 and acted as the “muscle” in the operation. The 19 terrorists easily smuggled box-cutters and knives through security at three East Coast airports and boarded four flights bound for California, chosen because the planes were loaded with fuel for the long transcontinental journey. Soon after takeoff, the terrorists commandeered the four planes and took the controls, transforming the ordinary commuter jets into guided missiles.

    As millions watched in horror the events unfolding in New York, American Airlines Flight 77 circled over downtown Washington and slammed into the west side of the Pentagon military headquarters at 9:45 a.m. Jet fuel from the Boeing 757 caused a devastating inferno that led to a structural collapse of a portion of the giant concrete building. All told, 125 military personnel and civilians were killed in the Pentagon along with all 64 people aboard the airliner.

    Less than 15 minutes after the terrorists struck the nerve center of the U.S. military, the horror in New York took a catastrophic turn for the worse when the south tower of the World Trade Center collapsed in a massive cloud of dust and smoke. The structural steel of the skyscraper, built to withstand winds in excess of 200 mph and a large conventional fire, could not withstand the tremendous heat generated by the burning jet fuel. At 10:30 a.m., the other Trade Center tower collapsed. Close to 3,000 people died in the World Trade Center and its vicinity, including a staggering 343 firefighters and paramedics, 23 New York City police officers, and 37 Port Authority police officers who were struggling to complete an evacuation of the buildings and save the office workers trapped on higher floors. Only six people in the World Trade Center towers at the time of their collapse survived. Almost 10,000 other people were treated for injuries, many severe.

    Meanwhile, a fourth California-bound plane–United Flight 93–was hijacked about 40 minutes after leaving Newark International Airport in New Jersey. Because the plane had been delayed in taking off, passengers on board learned of events in New York and Washington via cell phone and Airfone calls to the ground. Knowing that the aircraft was not returning to an airport as the hijackers claimed, a group of passengers and flight attendants planned an insurrection. One of the passengers, Thomas Burnett, Jr., told his wife over the phone that “I know we’re all going to die. There’s three of us who are going to do something about it. I love you, honey.” Another passenger–Todd Beamer–was heard saying “Are you guys ready? Let’s roll” over an open line. Sandy Bradshaw, a flight attendant, called her husband and explained that she had slipped into a galley and was filling pitchers with boiling water. Her last words to him were “Everyone’s running to first class. I’ve got to go. Bye.”

    The passengers fought the four hijackers and are suspected to have attacked the cockpit with a fire extinguisher. The plane then flipped over and sped toward the ground at upwards of 500 miles per hour, crashing in a rural field in western Pennsylvania at 10:10 a.m. All 45 people aboard were killed. Its intended target is not known, but theories include the White House, the U.S. Capitol, the Camp David presidential retreat in Maryland, or one of several nuclear power plants along the eastern seaboard.

    At 7 p.m., President George W. Bush, who had spent the day being shuttled around the country because of security concerns, returned to the White House. At 9 p.m., he delivered a televised address from the Oval Office, declaring “Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve.” In a reference to the eventual U.S. military response he declared: “We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them.”

    Operation Enduring Freedom, the U.S.-led international effort to oust the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and destroy Osama bin Laden’s terrorist network based there, began on October 7, 2001. Bin Laden was killed during a raid of his compound in Pakistan by U.S. forces on May 2, 2011.

    Source This Day In History

    Further reading:

  • The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (also known as the 9-11 Commission)
  • Foreign views:
    (The following articles are only offered to provide a glimpse of other nation’s varying views of America’s tragedy 10 years from the event, not necessarily as an endorsement of the ideas or viewpoints shared therein. There is a rancor and distrust that runs below the surface that has not existed for many years. May there be resolution and peace between, and within nations.)

  • 9/11 anniversary: Sombre US honours victims 10 years on – Britain – BBC
  • Mardell: Time for nation-building at home (“…Penn Station under the watchful eye of a man holding a heavy machine gun” – BBC – Britain
  • Bush’s Tragic Legacy – How 9/11 Triggered America’s Decline – Germany – Spiegel
  • We were all Americans, for at least awhile – Sweden
  • The East rises over Ground Zero – London/Britain, The Guardian | Presseurop
  • N.Y. remembers September 11 | Silence, tears and guitars
  • – Italy – Corriere Della Sera

  • 9/11: 10 years on – Is the world a safer place? – Russia – Pravda
  • America commemorates September 11 – France – Le Monde
  • Robert Peraza, the father of one of the victims of September 11, kneeling at Ground Zero (Reuters)

     
     
     

    Honor, justice, and humanity, forbid us tamely to surrender that freedom which we received from our gallant ancestors, and which our innocent posterity have a right to receive from us. We cannot endure the infamy and guilt of resigning succeeding generations to that wretchedness which inevitably awaits them if we basely entail hereditary bondage on them. –Thomas Jefferson(April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the third President of the United States (1801–1809). He was an influential Founding Father, and an exponent of Jeffersonian democracy.

     

    America remember and honor your history –
    it will give direction, purpose and security to your future.

     

    Plow & Hearth

     

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