History cannot give us a program for the future, but it can give us a fuller understanding of ourselves, and of our common humanity, so that we can better face the future. –Robert Penn Warren
Ancient History 69 – Second Battle of Bedriacum
Ancient History 1147 – Crusaders conquer Moors in Spain
After a siege of 4 months crusader knights led by Afonso Henriques reconquered Lisbon.
The Reconquista “the Recapturing”) was a period of almost 800 years (539 years in Portugal) in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms succeeded in retaking the Muslim-controlledareas of the Iberian Peninsula broadly known as Al-Andalus. The Reconquista of Al-Andalus began soon after the Islamic conquest with the formation of the Kingdom of Asturias by the Visigoths under the leadership of the nobleman Pelagius.
On this day in 1775, Virginia’s last royal governor, Lord John Murray Dunmore, orders a British naval fleet of six ships to sail up the James River and into Hampton Creek to attack Patriot troops and destroy the town of Norfolk, Virginia. British Captain Matthew Squire led the six ships into Hampton Creek and began bombarding the town with artillery and cannon fire, while a second contingent of British troops sailed ashore to begin engaging the Patriots.
Expecting the Patriots and local militia to come charging and to engage in open combat, the British were surprised to come under fire from expert riflemen, who began striking down British troops at a distance. Hearing of the British attack, Virginia’s local militia leader, Colonel William Woodford, marched an additional 100 members of the militia to defend Norfolk.
On this day in 1862, Union General Don Carlos Buell is replaced because of his ineffective pursuit of the Confederates after the Battle of Perryville, Kentucky, on October 8. He was replaced by William Rosecrans, who had distinguished himself in western Virginia in 1861 and provided effective leadership at the battle of Corinth, Mississippi, just prior to Perryville.
Old West 1879 – Captives released by Chief Douglas arrive at Chief Ouray’s camp where they are tended by Chipeta, Ouray’s wife.
Chief Ouray (Arrow) (c. 1833–August 24, 1880) was a Native American leader of the Uncompahgre band of the Ute tribe, then located in western Colorado. Because of his leadership ability, Ouray was acknowledged by the United States (US) government as a chief of the Utes. In 1880 he left Colorado to travel to Washington D.C where he testified to Congress about the Ute uprising of 1879. He tried to secure a treaty for the Uncompahgre Utes, who wanted to stay in Colorado; however, the following year, the Uncompahgre and the White River Utes were forced west, to live in reservations in present-day Utah.
On this day in 1861, workers of the Western Union Telegraph Company link the eastern and western telegraph networks of the nation at Salt Lake City, Utah, completing a transcontinental line that for the first time allows instantaneous communication betweenWashington, D.C., and San Francisco. Stephen J. Field, chief justice of California, sent the first transcontinental telegram to President Abraham Lincoln, predicting that the new communication link would help ensure the loyalty of the western states to the Union during the Civil War.
On this day in 1917, a combined German and Austro-Hungarian force scores one of the most crushing victories of World War I, decimating the Italian line along the northern stretch of the Isonzo River in the Battle of Caporetto, also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, or the Battle of Karfreit (to the Germans).
On this day in 1945, the United Nations Charter, which was adopted and signed on June 26, 1945, is now effective and ready to be enforced.
The United Nations was born of perceived necessity, as a means of better arbitrating international conflict and negotiating peace than was provided for by the old League of Nations. The growing Second World War became the real impetus for the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union to begin formulating the original U.N. Declaration, signed by 26 nations in January 1942, as a formal act of opposition to Germany, Italy, andJapan, the Axis Powers.
The Treaty of Westphalia is signed, ending the and radically shifting the balance of power in Europe.
The Thirty Years War, a series of wars fought by European nations for various reasons, ignited in 1618 over an attempt by the king of Bohemia (the future Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II) to impose Catholicism throughout his domains. Protestant nobles rebelled, and by the 1630s most of continental Europe was at war.
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