“There is one mind common to all individual men….
….Of the works of this mind history is the record. Man is explicable by nothing less than all his history. All the facts of history pre-exist as laws. Each law in turn is made by circumstances predominant. The creation of a thousand forests is in one acorn, and Egypt, Greece, Rome, Gaul, Britain, America, lie folded already in the first man. Epoch after epoch, camp, kingdom, empire, republic, democracy, are merely the application of this manifold spirit to the manifold world.”
From Ralph Waldo Emerson’s Essay ~ History
Medieval History 1410 – The Peace of Bicêtre between the Armagnac and Burgundian factions is signed.
The Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War was a French civil war between the Armagnac and Burgundian factions from 1407 to 1435 AD. It occurred while France was already being ravaged by the Hundred Years’ War against the English and the wars surrounding the Western Schism of the papacy.
On this day in 1777, the USS Ranger, with a crew of 140 men under the command of John Paul Jones, leaves Portsmouth, New Hampshire, for the naval port at Brest, France, where it will stop before heading toward the Irish Sea to begin raids on British warships. This was the first mission of its kind during the Revolutionary War.
On this day in 1861, controversial Union General John C. Fremont is relieved of command in the Western Department and replaced by David Hunter.
Fremont was one of the most prominent Union generals at the start of the war. Born in Georgia and raised in South Carolina, he joined the military in 1838 and helped map the upper Mississippi River. He made a significant career move in 1841 when he married Jesse Benton, the daughter of powerful Missouri senator Thomas Hart Benton. At first, the senator objected to the marriage, but he soon became Fremont’s staunchest supporter. With his father-in-law’s help, Fremont secured leadership of two famous expeditions to the West in the 1840s. He became involved in politics in the 1850s and was the fledgling Republican Party’s first presidential candidate in 1856.
Texas- Shafter Expedition of 1875. Lt Andrew Geddes, 25th Infantry, and detachments of Companies G and L, 10th Cavalry, from Lt Col William R. Shafter’s column, followed a trail of Apaches that the Seminole-Negro scouts under Lt John L Bullis had found. Geddes attached the Apache camp near the Pecos River. One Indian was killed, and four Indian women and one boy were captured.
More about the Apache Wars
We Shall Remain, Geronimo Part 1
Indian Wars: Buffalo Soldiers
History of Buffalo Soldiers
On November 2, 1917, Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour writes a letter to Britain’s most illustrious Jewish citizen, Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild, expressing the British government’s support for a Jewish homeland in Palestine. The Balfour Declaration
On this day in 1942, General Montgomery breaks through Rommel’s defensive line at El Alamein, Egypt, forcing a retreat. It was the beginning of the end of the Axis occupation of North Africa.
More about Operation Supercharge.
The Boston Female Medical School, first medical school in the world exclusively for women opened its doors to 12 students.Founded by Samuel Gregory, ￼ who disapproved of male doctors attending childbirth, its early curriculum focused on midwifery. In 1850,renamed the New England Female Medical College, this was expanded to include a full medical curriculum, and the college began to grant medical degrees to women. By 1873, the college had graduated 98 women doctors, including Rebecca Lee, MD, the first African-American female physician. Shortly after Geregory’s death, it merged with Boston University School of Medicine, becoming one of the first coed medical colleges in the world.
Joseph F. Glidden began manufacturing his new invention of barbed wire, having filed for a patent a few days before, on 27 Oct 1873 which was issued on 24 Nov 1874. The barbs were cut from sheet metal and were inserted between two wires which were twisted considerably more than with today’s common design. This product would transform the West. Before this innovation, settlers on the treeless plains had no easy way to fence livestock away from cropland, and ranchers had no way to prevent their herds from roaming far and wide. Glidden’s barbed wire opened the plains to large-scale farming, and closed the open range, bringing the era of the cowboy and the round-up to an end.
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